The agriculture, forestry, and land use sector contribute 22-34% of global greenhouse gas emissions while facing climate, biodiversity crises, and food insecurity. Vulnerable to climate change, it risks reduced yields, biodiversity loss, and desertification. Employing billions globally, it’s pivotal for food security but fails to provide healthy diets. Transforming this sector necessitates systemic changes, including ecosystem preservation, agricultural practice transformations, and addressing food waste. Despite insufficient progress, increasing long-term ambition and accelerating immediate actions are crucial to achieve global targets. Analyzing cases like Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, and Senegal, the chapter highlights the need for international cooperation to drive necessary transformations.
Transport contributes around 15% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with freight accounting for 40% of these emissions, and its growth is outpacing other sectors. Current strategies for freight decarbonization are insufficient, focusing primarily on technological advancements rather than needed organizational changes. The IPCC emphasizes that achieving carbon neutrality requires significant systemic transitions, including both technological and organizational shifts in the transport sector. This shift involves reducing tonnes transported, kilometers traveled, and the dominance of road freight through organizational changes, alongside expanding low-carbon alternatives. The chapters details examples from the Deep Decarbonization Pathways network illustrating potential organizational changes based on national analyses for emissions reduction in the freight sector.
The DDP’s research identified sectors feasible for economic decarbonization pre-COP21. While most sectors could decarbonize via clean electrification and fuel switching, industry posed a challenge due to hard-to-electrify processes. Recent advancements show the potential for deep decarbonization in steel production using hydrogen-based technology, notably seen in the EU’s successful policy measures. However, global cooperation remains lacking.