Sectoral transformations

Our work contributes to decarbonizing hard-to-decarbonize sectors. These sectors produce the majority of greenhouse gas emissions and sectoral transformations are necessary to reach the Paris Agreement Goal of 1.5°C. Our work focuses on two sectors: shipping and green iron.


The shipping industry’s  current strategy focuses all of its efforts on the technological decarbonization of fuels: using electro-based fuels like Ammonia. The industry is not  considering the possibility of a significant reduction of “movements and distances” – or the demand side of shipping. It assumes a continuity of the current geographical structure of the maritime routes and international production organization until 2050.

We promote a holistic approach to decarbonizing maritime transport by 2050, going beyond the technological development of e-fuels. We aim to raise awareness about the importance of addressing the demand side of shipping in order to produce a credible decarbonization strategy for maritime transport. To do this, we are building evidence to show that reducing movements and distances is a core component of decarbonizing the shipping industry. We raise awareness and engage with influencers in the maritime sector and participate in the International Maritime Organisation’s processes.

Our key activities include:

  • Producing an Issue brief about global supply chains, UNFCCC & IMO processes , and revision of the IMO GHG strategy and disseminating findings to key influencers in the IMO
  • Participating in intersessional working group on the reduction of GHG emissions from ships
  • Modeling global pathways on shortening trade distances (NDC Aspects)
  • Policy brief on policy challenges and critical international cooperation activities to support a structural shortening of trade distances consistent with the decarbonization of maritime transport
  • Dissemination of key insights and interventions towards COP28/SBSTA 59 

Green iron

Steel manufacturing produces 8% of total GHG emissions globally, producing the most carbon dioxide than any other heavy industry. The steel and iron sector is also the largest consumer of coal. To meet climate goals, the steel industry’s emissions must fall at least 50% by 2050. However, recent advances in technology allow for the production of green steel or green iron, which will help in decarbonizing the sector.

The steel industry accounts for 5% of the EU’s carbon emissions. We are promoting the idea to key EU policymakers and other stakeholders that green iron trade with key developing countries is important in Europe’s path to decarbonization. We are analyzing the socio-economic costs and benefits of green iron trade in Europe, as well as identifying measures needed to secure the EU’s access to competitively priced green iron.

Our key activities include:

  • Producing a policy paper on the global narratives of the industry sector, building from the country analysis of decarbonization pathways to highlight the international conditions of transformation of this sector (IMAGINE, possibly NDCAspects)
  • Assessing the socio-economics of alternative value-chains for the EU’s decarbonization of steel
  • Writing a Policy Brief on key findings from our work
  • Organizing a policy dialogue with key stakeholders and influencers